“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” – George Santayana
OPINION: Few Kiwis are aware that the racial segregation of Māori ever happened.
It is a remarkable story that should be taught in our schools because confronting injustice and acknowledging past wrongs is part of the process of healing for the country.
To break down stereotypes associated with the polarising term ‘Māori privilege’, it is essential to learn about our past and the disadvantages they have wrought.
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The epicentre of the segregation was in the South Auckland town of Pukekohe, where for much of the 1920s to the early ‘60s, Māori were not allowed upstairs at the cinema or to enter dairies.
Most barbers refused to cut their hair, taxi drivers would not pick them up, and on the bus to Auckland, they were forced to stand for a white passenger if the seats got full.
From 1952 to 1964, the Pukekohe Māori-only school was the only racially segregated school in the history of the country. The previous school had separate toilets for Māori. Monday through Thursday, European and Asian pupils were allowed into the swimming baths; Māori were only let in on Fridays – then they changed the dirty water.
The apartheid-like housing segregation would result in hundreds of deaths. As one government report noted, there was an “unwritten rule” among townsfolk, not to rent to Māori, forcing them to live at the market gardens on the outskirts of town.
There they resided in converted manure sheds, and dilapidated huts without running water or indoor plumbing. In one case, 12 people were crammed into a two-room shack. They were deathtraps. Over 200 Māori infants and children died from a host of preventable diseases during this period – from measles and diphtheria to whooping cough and tuberculosis.
In 1931, a journalist wrote the following description: “In a shed 8ft by 10ft, built of kerosene cases and roofed with kerosene tins…Maoris were living and paying a rent of 2/6 per week.”
A health official described the scene. “No fewer than eight persons are huddled into this ‘shelter’… and a few days ago a baby was born there. There is no floor, and on entering the place, mud was up to one’s boot tops during the recent rainy weather.”
In 1938 alone, 29 Māori infants and children died in Pukekohe from preventable diseases linked to their housing.
A wider issue
The segregation was not confined to South Auckland. The National Archives contain hundreds of examples from across the country.
In 1936, Tauranga barred Māori women and children from pākehā restrooms.
In 1940, politicians approved the building of a library and reading room in Kaitāia, complete with segregated toilets.
Some hospitals had separate maternity wards and gave Māori patients cheaper cutlery.
In 1960, some shops in Hamilton refused to let Māori customers try on pants, while a student from Hawaii who resembled a Māori entered a Dunedin restaurant and was refused service. He was told that reservations were required and that they were booked out for the next two weeks, but as he was leaving, “Pakehas entered and took tables without any indication of having made bookings.”
Why it matters
This topic is confronting, but it is no more difficult to breach than that of the many young men who died at Gallipoli and Passchendaele during World War I, or the history of black civil rights in America and South Africa – all standard topics taught in our schools today. I would argue that the segregation is even more poignant because it happened on Kiwi soil.
Teaching this history can help to explain why Māori lag behind non-Māori in every major social indicator. Māori die years younger than non-Māori, have higher rates of illness, infection, and psychiatric disorders, significantly higher mortality…